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WEB RESOURCES FOR
AFRICAN LANGUAGES
PAGE UPDATED
2008-07-05
 
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These pages
were created
by Jouni Maho.

EMAIL:
guy.depauw(at)aflat.org

Map showing the distribution of Bantu language groups
click for full size image

(A classified list of Bantu languages
appears in the NUGL Online.)
[ Niger-Congo » Benue-Congo » Bantoid » Bantu ]

Bantu languages

There are anywhere between 400 and 500 known Bantu languages. Over time, several subclassifications have been presented, none of which has proven to be very stable. Thus the Bantu languages are here grouped according to a referential classification originally devised by Malcolm Guthrie in the 1940s (cfr Guthrie 1971, Maho 2003), in which the Bantu languages are grouped into 15 geographical zones labelled with letters from the Latin alphabet. To these 15 zones, I have added Tervuren's J Zone, comprising languages re-grouped from zones D and E.

On this page, a bit further below, are links to general and comparative works on Bantu. They have been grouped as follows:

A SELECTION OF PRINTED LITERATURE

Bastin, Yvonne; Coupez, Andre; Mann, Michael. 1999. Continuity and divergence in the Bantu languages: perspectives from a lexicostatistic study. Annalen van het Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, menselijke wetenschappen, n. 162. Tervuren.

Ehret, Christopher. 2001. Bantu expansions: re-envisioning a central problem of early African history. International journal of African historical studies, v. 34, p. 1-41 (plus comments-cum-reply on p. 43-87).

Guthrie, Malcolm. 1967/71. Comparative Bantu, 4 vols. Gregg International.

Hinnebusch, Thomas J. 1989. Bantu. In: The Niger-Congo languages (ed. by John Theodor Bendor-Samuel), p. 450-473. University Press of America and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL).

Maho, Jouni Filip. 2003. A classification of the Bantu languages: an update of Guthrie's referential system. In: The Bantu languages (ed. by Derek Nurse & Gerard Philippson), p. 639-651. Routledge.

Meeussen, Achille Emille. 1967. Bantu grammatical reconstructions. In: Africana linguistica 3 (= Annalen van het Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, menselijke wetenschappen, n. 61), p. 79-121. Tervuren.

Nurse, Derek. 1994/95. "Historical" classifications of the Bantu languages. Azania, 29/30, p. 65-81.

Nurse, Derek; Philippson, Gerard. (Eds.) 2003. The Bantu languages. Routledge language family series, v. 4. Routledge.

Language surveys, classifications, general resources back to top »

Roger M. Blench, 1989
New developments in the classification of Bantu languages and their historical implications (PDF). From: Datation et chronologie dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_6/colloques2/38088.pdf

Jean Hiernaux, Anne-Marie Gauthier, 1977
Comparaison des affinités linguistiques en biologiques de douze populations de langue bantu. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 17, p. 241-254.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1977_num_17_66

Haig Der-Houssikian, 1972
The evidence for a Niger-Congo hypothesis. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 12, p. 316-322.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1972_num_12_46

Jouni Filip Maho
The New Updated Guthrie List (NUGL): the web version (PDF).
goto.glocalnet.net/mahopapers/nuglonline.pdf

Jouni Filip Maho, 2001
The Bantu area: (towards clearing up) a mess (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 1, p. 40-49.
www.african.gu.se/aa/downloads/aa01040.pdf

Jouni Filip Maho, 2002
Bantu line-up: comparative overview of three Bantu classifications (PDF). Dept of Oriental and African Languages, Göteborg University. Pp 59.
www.african.gu.se/maho/downloads/bantulineup.pdf

Jacky Maniacky
Bantu languages / Les langues bantu.
www.bantu-languages.com

Lutz Marten
Bantu classification, Bantu trees, and phylogenetic methods (PDF). From: Phylogenetic methods and the prehistory of languages. Edited by Peter Forster and Colin Renfrew. MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/Bantu_Trees.pdf

Salikoko S. Mufwene
Contact languages in the Bantu area. Dept of Linguistics, University of Chicago.
humanities.uchicago.edu/faculty/mufwene/mufw_bantucon.html

Derek Nurse, 2001
A survey report for the Bantu languages. SIL electronic survey report SILESR 2002-016.
www.sil.org/silesr/2002/016/SILESR2002-016.htm

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1986
The lexicostatistic base of Bennett and Sterk's reclassification of Niger-Congo with particular reference to the cohesion of Bantu (PDF). From: Studies in African linguistics, v. 17, p. 69-83.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8814

Lolke J. van der Veen, 2001
Contribution à l'étude des langues bantoues et des peuples bantouophones: approche linguistique, approche génétique (PDF). Revue gabonaise des sciences du langage, v. 2, p. 79-94.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Van%20Der%20Veen/Van%20der%20Veen_2001.pdf

Pronunciation, phonetics, phonology, tones back to top »

Lee S. Bickmore, 1996
Bantu tone spreading and displacement as alignment and minimal misalignement (PDF). Rutgers Optimal Archive ROA-161.
roa.rutgers.edu/index.php3?id=173

Laura J. Downing, 2001
Tone (non-)transfer in Bantu verbal reduplication (PDF). Paper presented at TAPS (Typology of African Prosodic Systems), University of Bielefeld, May 2001.
www.spectrum.uni-bielefeld.de/TAPS/Downing.pdf

Laura J. Downing, 2005
On the ambiguous segmental status of nasals in homroganic NC sequences (PDF). From: The internal organization of phonological segments. Edited by M. van Oostendorp and J.M. van de Weijer. Mouton de Gruyter.
www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/home/downing/preNC2.pdf

Carolyn Harford, Katherine Demuth, 1999
Prosody outranks syntax: an Optimality approach to subject inversion in Bantu relatices (PDF). Linguistic analysis, v. 29.
www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/1999%20Harford&Demuth.pdf

Larry M. Hyman
Data on vowel distributions and vowel harmony systems in Bantu languages. Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Larry M. Hyman, 2001
Privative tone in Bantu (PDF). From: Cross-linguistic studies of tonal phenomena. Edited by Shigeki Kaji. ILCAA Tokyo.
linguistics.berkeley.edu/~hyman/Privative_Tone_Tokyo_A4.pdf

Larry M. Hyman, 2001
Cyclicity and base non-identity (PDF). From: Sounds and systems. Edited by David Restle & Dietmar Zaefferer. Mouton de Gruyter.
linguistics.berkeley.edu/~hyman/Cyclic_Non-Identity,_novenn.pdf

Larry M. Hyman, 2003
Sound change, misanalysis, and analogy in the Bantu causative (PDF). Journal of African languages and linguistics, v. 24, p. 55-90.
linguistics.berkeley.edu/~hyman/Causative_Analogy_Paper_rev.pdf

Larry M. Hyman, 2003
Segmental phonology (PDF). From: The Bantu languages. Edited by Derek Nurse & Gérard Philippson. Routledge.
linguistics.berkeley.edu/~hyman/Bantu_segmental.pdf

Michael Key, 2006
Headed spans and Bantu tonology (PDF). Rutgers Optimal Archive ROA-809.
roa.rutgers.edu/view.php3?id=1114

Nancy Chongo Kula, 2004
Licensing saturation and co-occurence restrictions in structure: on Meinhof's Law in Bantu (PDF). From: Linguistics analysis, v. 32.
www.nancykula.net/Kula%20-LA-2004.pdf

Jouni Filip Maho, 1995
Calculating differences in phonological features of consonants in a sample of 25 Bantu languages (PDF) with an appendix (PDF). Dept of Linguistics, Göteborg University.
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/papers.html

Achille Emiel Meeussen, 1960
Les tons de l'infixe du bantou (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 23, p. 130-135.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Gérard Philippson, 1991
Tons et accent dans les langues bantu d'Afrique orientale (PDF). Thèse d'état. Université René Descartes (Paris 5).
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/philippson/these.pdf

Gérard Philippson, 1998
Evolution des systèmes prosodiques dans les langues bantu: de la typologie à la diachronie (PDF). From: Les langues d'Afrique subsaharienne. Edited by Susanne Platiel and Raphael Kaboré. Editions Ophrys.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Philippson/Philippson_1998b.pdf

Gérard Philippson, 1998
Tone reduction vs metrical attraction in the evolution of Eastern Bantu tone systems (PDF). From: Theoretical aspects of Bantu tone. Edited by Larry M. Hyman and Charles W. Kisseberth. CSLI Stanford University.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Philippson/Philippson_1998a.pdf

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1986
A note on segment inventories, redundancy conditions and A-rules (PDF). From: The phonological representation of suprasegmentals. Foris Publications.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8815

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1987
Silbenanlautsgesetze im Bantu (PDF). From: Afrika und Übersee, v. 70, p. 1-18.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8818

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1995
Spirantization and the 7-to-5 vowel merger in Bantu (PDF). From: Belgian journal of linguistics, v. 8, p. 73-84.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8831

Grammar, morphology back to top »

Enoch Oladé Aboh, 2007
Leftward focus versus rightward focus: the Kwa-Bantu conspiracy (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 81-104.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Ernst Dammann, 1983
Extensiva in Bantusprachen (PDF). From: Afrika und Übersee, v. 66, p. 3-12.
books.google.com/books?id=mjIzAAAAIAAJ (whole issue)

Katherine Demuth, 2000
Bantu noun class systems: loan word and acquisition evidence of semantic productivity (PDF). From: Classification systems. Edited by Günter Senft. Cambridge University Press.
www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/2000%20Demuth.pdf

Katherine Demuth, 2003
The acquisition of Bantu languages (PDF). From: The Bantu languages. Edited by Derek Nurse & Gérard Philippson. Routledge.
www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/2003%20Demuth.pdf

Katherine Demuth, Carolyn Harford, 1999
Verb raising and subject inversion in comparative Bantu (PDF). Journal of African languages and linguistics, v. 20, p. 41-61.
www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/1999%20Demuth&Harford.pdf

Mark Dingemanse, 2006
The semantics of Bantu noun classification: a review and comparison of three approaches (PDF). University of Leiden.
markdingemanse.nl/linguistics

Mark Dingemanse, 2007
Book review: 'Semantic assignment rules in Bantu classes' by Assibi A. Amidu. Afrikanistik Online.
www.afrikanistik-online.de/archiv/2008/1258/

Stefan Elders, 2007
Complex verb morphology in Kulango (Gur): similarities and dissimilarities with Bantu (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 187-200.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Carolyn Harford, Katherine Demuth, 1999
Prosody outranks syntax: an Optimality approach to subject inversion in Bantu relatices (PDF). Linguistic analysis, v. 29.
www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/1999%20Harford&Demuth.pdf

Brent Henderson, 2004
Evidence for Rizzi's left periphery: Bantu relative clauses (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
www.linguistics.uiuc.edu/bhendrsn/Left%20Periphery%20Bantu.pdf

Brent Henderson, 2004
Head movement in syntax and at PF (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
www.linguistics.uiuc.edu/bhendrsn/Henderson-Head%20movement.pdf

Brent Henderson, 2005
Multiple agreement, concord, and case checking in Bantu: a reply to Carstens (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
www.linguistics.uiuc.edu/bhendrsn/a%20reply%20to%20carstensII.pdf

Brent Henderson, 2005
Agreement and inversion in Bantu relatives: typology and syntax (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
www.linguistics.uiuc.edu/bhendrsn/Bantu%20that-rels.pdf

Brent Henderson, 2006
Multiple agreement, concord and case checking in Bantu (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 36th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/36/index.html

Lilias Homburger, 1929
Les préfixes dans les parlers peul, haoussa et bantous. University of Michigan Digital Library.
name.umdl.umich.edu/AHD1106.0001.001

Larry M. Hyman, 2001
Suffix ordering in Bantu: a morphocentric approach (PDF). Rutgers Optimal Archive ROA-437.
roa.rutgers.edu/index.php3?id=633

Larry M. Hyman, Sharon Inkelas, Galen Sibanda, 1998
Morphosyntactic correspondence in Bantu reduplication (PDF). Publ. 2003 in: The nature of the word. Edited by K. Hanson & S. Inkelas. MIT Press.
linguistics.berkeley.edu/~hyman/Ndebele_Redup_final_rev.pdf

Nancy Chongo Kula, 2004
On word-order restrictions in Bantu relative clauses (PDF). Paper presented at the 4th Bantu Grammar Meeting, Leiden.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/BantuProjectPapers/KulaRelativesExtendedHO-Nov04.PDF

Arthur Cornwallis Madan, 1911
Living speech in central and south Africa: an essay introductory to the Bantu family of languages (PDF). Oxford.
www.archive.org/details/livingspeechince00madaiala

Jouni Filip Maho, 2003
Remarks on a few "polyplural" classes in Bantu (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 3, p. 161-184.
www.african.gu.se/aa/downloads/aa03161.pdf

Jouni Filip Maho, 2007
The linear ordering of TAM/NEG markers in the Bantu languages (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 213-225.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Lutz Marten, 2004
Focus positions in Bantu (PDF). Paper presented at the 4th Bantu Grammar Meeting, Leiden.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/BantuProjectPapers/MartenBantuFocusOct2004.pdf

Lutz Marten
Focus strategies and the incremental development of semantic representations: evidence from Bantu (PDF). From: Focus strategies. Edited by Enoch Aboh, Katharina Hartmann and Malte Zimmermann. Mouton de Gruyter.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/LutzFocusStrategies8Apr2006.pdf

Lutz Marten, Ruth Kempson
Pronouns, agreement, and the dynamic construction of verb phrase interpretation: a Dynamic Syntax approach to Bantu clause structure (PDF). Linguistic analysis, v. 32, p. 471-504.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/LAMartenKempson8Apr2006.pdf

Lutz Marten, Nancy C. Kula, 2007
Morphosyntactic co-variation in Bantu: two case studies (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 227-238.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Lutz Marten, Nancy Kula, Nhlanhla Thwala, 2005
Parameters of morphosyntactic variation in Bantu (PDF). Paper presented at the 5th Bantu Grammar Meeting, London.
mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/BantuProjectPapers/Marten_Kula_Thwala_Bantu_London_Meeting.pdf

Francis Matambirofa, 2000
Some aspects of the architecture of the possessive noun phrase in Bantu (PDF). Zambezia, v. 27.1, p. 93-102.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Achille Emiel Meeussen, 1960
Les tons de l'infixe du bantou (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 23, p. 130-135.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Yukiko Morimoto, 2002
Prominence mismatches and differential object marking in Bantu (PDF). Proceedings of the LFG02 conference. CSLI Publications Online.
csli-publications.stanford.edu/LFG/7/lfg02morimoto.pdf

Deogratias S. Ngonyani, 2006
Resumptive pronominal clitics in Bantu languages (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 36th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/36/index.html

Derek Nurse, 2006
Focus in Bantu: verbal morphology and function (PDF). ZAS papers in linguistics, n. 43, p. 189-208.
www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/index.html?publications_zaspil

Derek Nurse, 2007
The emergence of tense in early Bantu (PDF). Selected proceedings of the 37th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/37/index.html

Derek Nurse, 2007
Tense and aspect in Bantu: online data appendix (PDF). Dept of Linguistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
www.ucs.mun.ca/~dnurse/tabantu.html

Josephat M. Rugemalira, 2007
The structure of the Bantu noun phrase (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 135-148.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1977
Der Kohortativ "Dual" und Plural in den Bantusprachen (PDF). From: XIX. Deutschen Orientalistentag vom 28. September bis 4. Oktober 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8796

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1978
Partizipanten am Dialog: eine grammatische Kategorie, nachgewiesen am Bantu (PDF). From: Struktur und Wandel afrikanischer Sprachen. Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8797

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1982
Les suffixes verbaux séparatifs en bantou (PDF). From: Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika (SUGIA), v. 4, p. 55-66.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8808

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1985
Classificatie van naamwoorden en dingen in het bantoe (PDF). From: Africa-Focus, v. 1, p. 67-85.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8811

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1995
Object diagnostics in Bantu (PDF). From: Issues in African languages and linguistics (essays in honour of Kay Williamson). National Institute for Nigerian Languages.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8832

Nhlanhla Thwala, 2006
Parameters of variation and complement licensing in Bantu (PDF). ZAS papers in linguistics, n. 43, p. 209-232.
www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/index.html?publications_zaspil

Julius Torrend, 1891
A comparative grammar of the South-African Bantu languages (PDF). London.
www.archive.org/details/comparativegramm00torruoft

Mark van de Velde, 2005
The order of noun and demonstratives in Bantu (PDF). From: Studies in African comparative linguistics. Edited by K. Bostoen and J. Maniacky. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
webh01.ua.ac.be/markvandevelde/publications.html

Alice Werner, 1919
Introductory sketch of the Bantu languages (PDF). London.
www.archive.org/details/introductorysket00wernuoft

Ellen Woolford, 1994
Why passive can block object marking (PDF).
eric.ed.gov (ED373563)

Victor Zinkuratire, 1998
Morphological and syntactical similarities between Hebrew and Bantu languages. From: Newsletter on African Old Testament scholarship, May 1998.
www.mhs.no/article_303.shtml

Words, lexicons, dictionary-making back to top »

Comparative Bantu On-Line Dictionary (CBOLD).
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Serge Bahuchet, Gérard Philippson, 1998
Les plantes d'origine américaine en Afrique bantoue: une approche linguistique (PDF). From: Plantes et paysages d'Afrique. Edited by G. Chastanet. Editions Karthala.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Philippson/Bahuchet_1998.pdf

Harry Hamilton Johnston, 1919/22
A comparative study of the Bantu and semi-Bantu languages (PDF). Oxford.
www.archive.org/details/comparativestudy01johnuoft

John G. Kiango, 2005
Problems of citation form in dictionaries of Bantu languages (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 14 (3), p. 255-273.
www.njas.helsinki.fi

Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, 2006
Internationalisation, localisation and customisation aspects of the dictionary application TshwaneLex (PDF). From: Lexikos, v. 16, p. 222-238.
tshwanedje.com/publications

Daniël J. Prinsloo, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, 2001
Taking dictionaries for Bantu languages into the new millennium, with special reference to Kiswahili, Sepedi and isiZulu (PDF). From: Makala ya kongamano la kimataifa Kiswahili 2000 (Proceedings). Edited by J.S. Mdee & H.J.M. Mwansoko. Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI), Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam.
tshwanedje.com/publications/kiswahili2000bantu.pdf

Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, 2003
Online dictionaries on the Internet: an overview for the African languages (PDF). Lexikos, v. 13, p. 1-20.
tshwanedje.com/publications/OBDs.pdf

Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, Daniël J. Prinsloo, 2001
Towards a sound lemmatisation strategy for the Bantu verb through the use of frequency-based tail slots, with special reference to Cilubà, Sepedi and Kiswahili (PDF). From: Makala ya kongamano la kimataifa Kiswahili 2000 (Proceedings). Edited by J.S. Mdee & H.J.M. Mwansoko. Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI), Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam.
tshwanedje.com/publications/kiswahili2000fbts.pdf

Proto-Bantu reconstructions, historical-comparative studies back to top »

Bantu lexical reconstructions 3 (BLR3) at Tervuren.
www.metafro.be/blr

Bantu lexical reconstructions 2 (BLR2). Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Koen Bostoen
Comparative Bantu pottery vocabulary (5,800+ entries). Tervuren.
www.metafro.be/cb-pottery

Koen Bostoen, 2004
Linguistics for the use of African history and the comparative study of Bantu pottery vocabulary (PDF). Antwerp papers in linguistics, v. 106, p. 131-154.
webhost.ua.ac.be/apil/apil106/index.htm

Annelies Bulkens, 1997
Some nominal stems for "canoe" in Bantu languages (PDF).
eric.ed.gov (ED416681)

Malcolm Guthrie, 1967
Guthrie's Proto-Bantu recontructions (2,200 items). Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Malcolm Guthrie, 1967
Guthrie's Common Bantu roots (5,500 items). Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Jean-Marie Hombert, François Nsuka-Nkutsi, Gilbert Puech, 1987
Quelques perspectives pour la linguistique historique bantu (PDF). Pholia, v. 2, p. 99-102.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/divers/Download/Pholia/Pholia_N-2.pdf (whole issue)

Larry M. Hyman, 1998
Proto-Grassfields-Bantu recontructions (450 items). Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Larry M. Hyman, 2007
Reconstructing the Proto-Bantu verbal unit: internal evidence (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 201-211.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Larry M. Hyman, Gérard Philippson, Lolke van der Veen, Jacky Maniacky, Jeffrey Good
Bantu Retention and Innovation Questionnaire (BRIQ).
www.bantu-languages.com/questionnaires/briq/index.html

André Jacquot, 1991
Le nom de la houe dans les langues bantoues du nord-ouest: implications historiques (PDF). Cahiers des sciences humaines, v. 27, p. 561-576.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/sci_hum/35828.pdf

Achille E. Meeussen, 1967
Meeussen's Proto-Bantu reconstructions (1,950 items). Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

Derek Nurse, 2007
The emergence of tense in early Bantu (PDF). Selected proceedings of the 37th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/37/index.html

Derek Nurse, 2007
Did the Proto-Bantu verb have a synthetic or an analytic structure? (PDF). SOAS working papers in linguistics, v. 15, p. 239-256.
www.soas.ac.uk/linguistics/research/workingpapers/volume-15/swpl-volume-15.html

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1970
Büttner's contribution to a comparative dictionary of the Bantu languages (PDF). From: Africana marburgensia, v. 3, p. 31-35.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8794

Gisèle Teil-Dautrey, 2004
Lexiques proto-bantous: étude des cooccurences segmentales et supra-segmentales. (Also PDF.) Thèse de doctorat. Université Lumière (Lyon 2).
demeter.univ-lyon2.fr:8080/sdx/theses/lyon2/2004/teil-dautrey_g
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Teil-Dautrey/Teil-Dautrey_2004_th╦se.pdf

Miscellaneous, unsorted back to top »

Pius Hasha, 1985
Bantu studies: the French in East Africa. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 25, p. 259-262.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1985_num_25_98

Jouni Filip Maho
BOB: the Bantu Online Bibliography (PDF).
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/papers.html

Jouni Filip Maho
Bantu languages and "descriptional density".
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/ddvalues.html

Derek Nurse
Tense-Aspect bibliography (PDF). Dept of Linguistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
www.ucs.mun.ca/~dnurse/

J.F. van Oordt, 1907
The origin of the Bantu (PDF). Cape Town.
www.archive.org/details/originofbantupre00oorduoft

Malin Petzell, 2003
Swedish contributions to African linguistics, with a focus on Bantu languages (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 3, p. 41-52.
www.african.gu.se/aa/downloads/aa03041.pdf

Hans-Ingo Weier
Bantu studies, personal homepage.
www.bantuistik.de (frames: click on Bantu)

Alice Werner, 1933
Myths and legends of the Bantu. Originally published by Harrap in London. Webbaccess by the Internet Sacred Text Archive.
www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mlb/index.htm

Web sources for individual languages back to top »

See: Zone A
Zone B
Zone C
Zone D
Zone E
Zone F
Zone G
Zone H
Zone J
Zone K
Zone L
Zone M
Zone N
Zone P
Zone R
Zone S
    Map showing the distribution of Bantu language groups
click for full size image

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