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WEB RESOURCES FOR
AFRICAN LANGUAGES
PAGE UPDATED
2008-09-04
 
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These pages
were created
by Jouni Maho.

EMAIL:
guy.depauw(at)aflat.org

Country-specific materials, articles, websites

This page intends to collect links to web resources that deal with language issues focussing specifically on individual African countries. It is still very incomplete -- but it is growing.

QUICK JUMP
Algeria | Angola | Benin | Botswana | British Indian Ocean Territory | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroon | Canary Islands | Cape Verde Islands | Central African Rep. | Chad | Comoro Islands | Congo-Brazzaville | Congo-Kinshasa | Côte d'Ivoire | Djibouti | Egypt | Equatorial Guinea | Eritrea | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Kenya | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Madagascar | Malawi | Mali | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mayotte | Morocco | Mozambique | Namibia | Niger | Nigeria | Réunion | Rwanda | Sahrawi Rep. | St Helena | São Tomé e Príncipe | Senegal | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Somalia | South Africa | Sudan | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | Tunisia | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe

 

Algeria back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Algeria. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/AG

Languages of Algeria, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=DZ

Gilbert Grandguillaume, 2004
Country case study on the language of instruction and the quality of basic education: policy of arabization in primary and secondary education in Algeria = a background paper for the "Education for all global monitoring report 2005: the quality imperative" (PDF). UNESCO document, ref. 2005/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/19.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Mohamed Meouak, Nacera Kouici, 2001
Argots, jargons et mots de passe dans l'arabe algérien: notes linguistiques et sociologiques (PDF). Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí, v. 5, p. 61-71.
www.ieiop.com/publicaciones/detalle.php?idnoticia=265

Hind Amel Mostari, 2005
The language question in the Arab World: evidence from Algeria (PDF). Journal of language and learning, v. 3, p. 36-52.
www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/jllearn/3_1/mostari.htm

Rabeh Sebaa, 2002
Culture et plurilinguisme en Algérie. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 13.
www.inst.at/trans/13Nr/sebaa13.htm

Angeles Vicente, Amalia Zomeño, 1997
Dos ejemplos sobre la distribución del trabajo en el Marruecos rural: aproximación lingüística y etnográfica (PDF). Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí, v. 2, p. 197-223.
www.ieiop.com/publicaciones/detalle.php?idnoticia=99

Angola back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Angola. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/AO

Languages of Angola, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=AO

Benin back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Benin. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/BN

Languages of Benin, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=BJ

Bisharat discussion board: Langues béninoises et les NTIC.
www.quicktopic.com/share?s=QSpo

Botswana back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Botswana. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/BC

Languages of Botswana, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=BW

Google Botswana.
www.google.co.bw

Nkonko M. Kamwangamalu
Book review: 'Language and development in southern Africa' edited by R. Trewby & S. Fitchat, 2001. H-Net book review, January 2003.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Lydia Nyati-Ramahobo, 1994
Minority language use and early educational hurdles in Botswana (PDF). Pula: Botswana journal of African studies, v. 8.1, p. 90-103.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Desmond Painter
Book review: 'Language and identities in a postcolony: southern African perspectives' edited by Rosalie Finlayson & Sarah Slabbert, 2005. H-Net book review, December 2006.
www.h-net.org/reviews

British Indian Ocean Territory (Br./US) back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in British Indian Ocean Territory. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/IO

Languages of British Indian Ocean Territory, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=IO

Burkina Faso back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Burkina Faso. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/UV

Languages of Burkina Faso, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=BF

Bisharat discussion board: Langues burkinabè et les NTIC.
www.quicktopic.com/share?s=QSpo

Issa Diallo, 2004
Les langues nationales, outils de promotion du français au Burkina Faso (PDF). Colloque Développement Durable, Ouagadougou.
www.francophonie-durable.org/documents/colloque-ouaga-a1-diallo.pdf

Abou Napon, 2003
La problèmatique de l'introduction des langues nationales dans l'enseignement primaire au Burkina Faso (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, n. 2 (50).
www.sudlangues.sn/IMG/pdf/doc-50.pdf

Norbert Nikièma, 1980
The linguistic situation in Upper Volta: theoretical and applied research on the national languages (PDF) = La situation linguistique en Haute-Volta: travaux de recherche et d'application sur les langues nationales (PDF). UNESCO document, ref. ED-80/WS/22.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Norbert Nikiéma, 1996
Evolution de la question de l'utilisation des langues nationales dans le système éducatif au Burkina Faso (PDF). Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268, v. 7, p. 187-201.
publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/volltexte/2006/3600/

Albert Ouédraogo, 2004
Langues nationales et langue officielle à travers la chorale de Kongoussi (PDF). Colloque Développement Durable, Ouagadougou.
www.francophonie-durable.org/documents/colloque-ouaga-a1-ouedraogo.pdf

Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, 2005
Les relations entre l'arabe et le français dans le système éducatif au Burkina Faso (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, n. 5 (108).
www.sudlangues.sn/IMG/pdf/doc-108.pdf

Féridjou Emilie Georgette Sanon-Ouattara, 2005
La traduction en situation de diglossie: le cas du discours religieux chrétien au Burkina Faso (PDF). Dissertation. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RuG).
irs.ub.rug.nl/ppn/274536048

Burundi back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Burundi. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/BY

Languages of Burundi, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=BI

Google Burundi.
www.google.bi

Claude Frey, 1995
Au Burundi, le plurilinguisme entre l'ordre et la contestation? (PDF). Le français en Afrique: revue du réseau des observatoires du français contemporain en Afrique, n. 10.
www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/10/10.html

Barbara Ndimurukundo-Kururu, 2004
Problématique de la législation linguistique au Burundi (PDF). Colloque Développement Durable, Ouagadougou.
www.francophonie-durable.org/documents/colloque-ouaga-a1-ndimurukundo.pdf

Cameroon back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Cameroon. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CM

Languages of Cameroon, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CM

SIL Cameroun.
www.sil.org/africa/cameroun

Pierre Alexandre, 1962
Rapport de mission ethno-linguistique au Sud-Cameroun. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 2, p. 630-634.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1962_num_2_8

Eric A. Anchimbe, 2006
Functional seclusion and the future of indigenous languages in Africa: the case of Cameroon (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 35th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/index.html

Eric A. Anchimbe, 2006
Socio-pragmatic constraints to native or indigenous language education in Cameroon (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 36th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/36/index.html

Jean-Claude Barbier, 1981
Les groupes ethniques et les langues (PDF). From: Encyclopédie de la République Unie de Cameroun, p. 239-260.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_02-03/02981.pdf

Daniel Barreteau, 1981
Plan de description pour la standardisation de l'écriture des langues camerounaises (PDF). Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_12-13/17099.pdf

Daniel Barreteau, 1984
Les langues (PDF). From: Le nord du Cameroun. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_2/memoires/15527.pdf

Edmond Biloa, 2004
Loans from European languages in African languages: intercultural relationships and necessity. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 15, section 7.1.
www.inst.at/trans/15Nr/07_1/biloa15.htm

Steven Bird, 2002
Orthography and identity in Cameroon (PDF). Written language and literacy, v. 4, p. 131-162.
cogprints.org/1446

Zachée Denis Bitjaa Kody, 2001
Gestion du plurilinguisme urbain par les communautés religieuse à Yaoundé (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 22, p. 66-72.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

Zachée Denis Bitjaa Kody, 2001
Emergence et survie des langues nationales au Cameroun. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 11.
www.inst.at/trans/11Nr/kody11.htm

Geoffrey Echu, 1999
Colonialism and linguistic dilemmas in Africa: Cameroon as a paradigm - revisited (PDF). Quest: an African journal of philosophy, v. 13, p. 19-26.
www.quest-journal.net/1999.htm

George Echu, 2002
Multilingualism as a resource: the lexical appropriation of Cameroon indigenous languages by English and French. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 13.
www.inst.at/trans/13Nr/echu13.htm

George Echu, 2003
Coping with multilingualism: trends in the evolution of language policy in Cameroon. PhiN (Philologie in Netz), v. 25, p. 31-46.
web.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin25/p25t2.htm

George Echu, 2004
Problématique de l'emprunt linguistique dans le contexte du bilinguisme officiel au Cameroun. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 15, section 7.1.
www.inst.at/trans/15Nr/07_1/echu15.htm

George Echu, 2004
The language question in Cameroon. Linguistik online, v. 18, p. 19-34.
www.linguistik-online.de/18_04/echu.html

Valentin Feussi, 2004
Politique linguistique et développement durable au Cameroun: perspective émique ou perspective étique (PDF). Colloque Développement Durable, Ouagadougou.
www.francophonie-durable.org/documents/colloque-ouaga-a1-feussi.pdf

Yves Marguerat, 1976
Les peuples du Cameroun (PDF). Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_02-03/02969.pdf

Alain Flaubert Takam, 2007
Bilinguisme officiel et promotion de la langue minoritaire en milieu scolaire: le cas du Cameroun (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, v. 7, p. 26-48.
www.sudlangues.sn/article111.html

Godfrey Tangwa, 1999
Colonialism and linguistic dilemmas in Africa: Cameroon as a paradigm (PDF). Quest: an African journal of philosophy, v. 13, p. 3-18.
www.quest-journal.net/1999.htm

Jean-Bénoit Tsofack, 2002
Publicité, langue et plurivocalité au Cameroun (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, n. 1 (15).
www.sudlangues.sn/IMG/pdf/doc-15.pdf

Canary Islands (Sp.) back to top »

Directory of cities and towns in Canary Islands. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SP/53

Cape Verde Islands back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Cape Verde. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CV

Languages of Cape Verde Islands, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CV

Capeverdean Creole Institute in Dorchester MA, USA.
www.capeverdeancreoleinstitute.org

Central African Republic back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Central African Republic. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CT

Languages of Central African Republic, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CF

Henri Guillaume, Jean-Michel Delobeau, 1978
Une mosaïque ethnique et linguistique en milieu rural: enquête de démographie linguistique dans la sous-préfecture de Mongoumba (PDF). From: Contacts de langues et contacts de culture. Société pour l'Etude des Langues Africaines.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_12-13/16056.pdf

Michel Koyt, 1995
La terminologie dans le contexte de l'aménagement linguistique de la République centrafricaine (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 14, p. 6-9.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

Pierre Nougayrol, 1990
Langues et populations du nort-est centrafricain (PDF). From: Relations interethniques et culture matérielle dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_6/colloques2/31546.pdf

Chad back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Chad. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CD

Languages of Chad, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TD

Comoro Islands back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in the Comoros. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CN

Languages of Comoros Islands, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=KM

Congo-Brazzaville back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Congo-Brazzaville. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CF

Languages of Congo-Brazzaville, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CG

Google Rep. du Congo.
www.google.cg

André Jacquot, 1961
Recherches linguistiques au Congo (PDF). Nouvelles de l'IEC (COG), v. 3, p. 1-9.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_06-07/07822.pdf

André Jacquot, 1967
Essai de géographie linguistique sur quelques plantes médicinales du Congo-Brazzaville (PDF). Cahiers de l'ORSTOM, série sciences humaines, v. 4 (3/4), p. 3-35.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/sci_hum/19800.pdf

André Jacquot, 1971
Les langues Congo-Brazzaville: inventaire et classification (PDF). Cahiers de l'ORSTOM, série sciences humaines, v. 8, p. 349-357.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/sci_hum/19840.pdf

Orner Massoumou, 2001
Des usages linguistiques actuels en République du Congo (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 22, p. 73-78.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

David R. Woods, 1994
Changing patterns of language utilization in the Republic of Congo (PDF).
eric.ed.gov (ED367183)

Congo-Kinshasa back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Congo-Kinshasa. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/CG

Languages of Congo-Kinshasa, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CD

Google Rep. Dem. du Congo.
www.google.cd

Edema Atibakwa Baboya, 2003
L'orthographe des langues de la République démocratique du Congo: entre usages et norme (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 23, p. 76-83.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

Gustaaf Hulstaert, 1939
La langue véhiculaire de l'enseignement (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 2, p. 85-89.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Gustaaf Hulstaert, 1953
Civilisation occidentale et langage au Congo belge (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 16, p. 23-25.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Ngessimo Mutaka, 2001
Language and oral literature as a national identity marker in the DRC. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 11.
www.inst.at/trans/11Nr/mutaka11.htm

Mwatha Musanji Ngalasso, 1986
Etat des langues et langues de l'état au Zaïre (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 23, p. 7-28.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/023007.pdf

R. Philippe, 1955
Au sujet de deux cartes linguistiques du Congo belge (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 18, p. 67-68.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Albert Jozef de Rop, 1960
Les langues du Congo (PDF). Aequatoria, v. 23, p. 1-24.
www.abbol.com/bookbank/bookbank_text_en.html

Mark van de Velde, 1999
The two language maps of the Belgian Congo (PDF). Annales Aequatoria, v. 20, p. 475-489.
webh01.ua.ac.be/markvandevelde/publications.html

Côte d'Ivoire back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Côte d'Ivoire. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/IV

Languages of Côte d'Ivoire, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CI

Google Cote d'Ivoire.
www.google.ci

Cécile van den Avenne, 1998
Partage de territoire: coexistence du français et des autres langues locales dans une ville ivoirienne. Le français en Afrique: revue du réseau des observatoires du français contemporain en Afrique, n. 12.
www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/12/12.html

Jean Derive, Marie-Jose Derive, 1986
Francophonie et pratique linguistique en Côte d'Ivoire (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 23, p. 42-56.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/023042.pdf

Djibouti back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Djibouti. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/DJ

Languages of Djibouti, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=DJ

Google Djibouti.
www.google.dj

Egypt back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Egypt. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/EG

Languages of Egypt, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=EG

Google Egypt.
www.google.com.eg

Mohamed Abuelata
Un apunte sobre el español en Egipto. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2003.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_03

Equatorial Guinea back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Equatorial Guinea. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/EK

Languages of Equatorial Guinea, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GQ

Trinidad Morgades Besari
Breve apunte sobre el español en Guinea Ecuatorial. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_05

Birgit Ricquier, 2005
De taalsituatie in Equatoriaal-Guinea (PDF). Lisensiaatverhandeling. Universiteit Gent.
www.scriptieprijs.be/NL/index.php?cat=17&page=44&preview=0&cache=&id=447

Eritrea back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Eritrea. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/ER

Languages of Eritrea, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ER

Ethiopia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Ethiopia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/ET

Languages of Ethiopia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ET

Gabon back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Gabon. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/GB

Languages of Gabon, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GA

André Jacquot, 1978
Le Gabon (PDF). From: Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d'Afrique noire d'expression française et sur Madagascar. Conseil International de la Langue Française (CILF).
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_08-09/09655.pdf

André Jacquot, 1983
Ethno-linguistique (PDF). From: Géographie et cartographie du Gabon. Paris: Edicef.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_16-17/21242.pdf

André Jacquot, 1988
Langue nationale et langues nationels: commentaires sur un projet de langue commune au Gabon (PDF). Cahiers des sciences humaines, v. 24, p. 403-416.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/sci_hum/26976.pdf

T.J. Kwenzi Mikala, 1987
Contribution à l'inventaire des parlers bantu du Gabon (PDF). Pholia, v. 2, p. 103-110.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/divers/Download/Pholia/Pholia_N-2.pdf (whole issue)

T.J. Kwenzi Mikala, 1992
Présentation géo-linguistique de Libreville (PDF). Pholia, v. 7, p. 67-82.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/divers/Download/Pholia/Pholia_N-2.pdf (whole issue)

Raymond Mayer, 1987
Langues des groupes pygmées au Gabon: un état des lieux (PDF). Pholia, v. 2, p. 111-124.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/divers/Download/Pholia/Pholia_N-2.pdf (whole issue)

Rebecca Mitchell, 2004
Les perceptions du français gabonais et la distribution des langues au Gabon (PDF). Le français en Afrique: revue du réseau des observatoires du français contemporain en Afrique, n. 19.
www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/19/Articles.html

Lolke J. van der Veen, 2005
Language, culture, and genes in Bantu: a multidisciplinary approach of the Bantu-speaking populations of Africa - the case of Gabon (PDF). Proceedings of the 1st OMLL conference, Leipzig, April 2004.
www.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Annuaires/PDF/Van%20Der%20Veen/Van%20der%20Veen_ý%20paraÓtre.pdf

Gambia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in The Gambia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/GA

Languages of Gambia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GM

Google Gambia.
www.google.gm

Ghana back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Ghana. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/GH

Languages of Ghana, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GH

Bisharat discussion board: Ghanaian languages & ICT.
www.quicktopic.com/share?s=QSpo

Albert K. Awedoba, 1985
Bilingualism and language shift in Navrongo (PDF). Research review of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, v. 1.2, p. 203-225.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Jack Berry, 1968
The Madina Project, Ghana: language attitude in Madina (PDF). Research review of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, v. 5.2, p. 61-79.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Adams B. Bodomo, 1996
On language and development in Africa: the case of Ghana (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 5, p. 31-53.
www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol5num2/bodomo.pdf

Alex K. Dzameshie, 1988
Language policy and the common languag controversy in Ghana (PDF). Research review of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, new series, v. 4.2, p. 16-27.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Mary E. Kropp Dakubu, 1985
Notes on the linguistic situation on the coast of Ghana during the nineteeth century (PDF). Research review of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, new series, v. 1.2, p. 192-202.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Kwadwo Asafo-Agyei Okrah, 203
Language, education and culture: the dilemma of Ghanaian schools. The African symposium: an on-line African educational research journal, v. 3 (4).
www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/aern/inkralang.html

Charles Owu-Ewie, 2006
The language policy of education in Ghana: a critical look at the English-only language policy of education (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 35th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/index.html

Martin Verlet, 1986
Langue et pouvoir au Ghana sous Nkrumah: les maîtres-mots (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 23, p. 67-82.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/023067.pdf

Guinea back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Guinea. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/GV

Languages of Guinea, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GN

Alpha Mamadou Diallo, 1998
Le français et les langues guinéennes: conséquences du contact. Le français en Afrique: revue du réseau des observatoires du français contemporain en Afrique, n. 12.
www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/12/12.html

Alpha Mamadou Diallo, 2004
Usages et images des langues de Guinée (PDF). Le français en Afrique: revue du réseau des observatoires du français contemporain en Afrique, n. 19.
www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/19/Articles.html

Merwyn David Waldegrave Jeffreys, 1972
Guinea: pointers to the origin of this word. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 12, p. 666-669.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1972_num_12_48

Guinea-Bissau back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Guinea-Bissau. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/PU

Languages of Guinea-Bissau, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GW

Merwyn David Waldegrave Jeffreys, 1972
Guinea: pointers to the origin of this word. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 12, p. 666-669.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1972_num_12_48

Alain Kihm, 1980
La situation linguistique en Casamance et Guinée-Bissau. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 20, p. 369-386.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1980_num_20_79

Kenya back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Kenya. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/KE

Languages of Kenya, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=KE

Google Kenya.
www.google.co.ke

Peter Oracha Adoyo, 2002
Emergent approaches towards bilingualism in deaf education in Kenya (PDF). Stichproben: Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien, v. 3, p. 83-96.
www.univie.ac.at/ecco/stichproben

Teresa K. Fink, 2005
Attitudes towards languages in Nairobi (PDF). MA thesis. University of Pittsburgh.
etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-04212005-121428/unrestricted/NairobiAttitudes.pdf

Julius Jwan, Nathan Oyori Ogechi, 2004
Bilingual education for street children in Kenya: evidence from language mixing (PDF). Journal of language and learning, v. 2, p. 65-87.
www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/jllearn/2_2a/jwanogechi.htm

John Mugabe, 2006
Necrolinguistics: the linguistically stranded (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 35th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/index.html

Robert W. Oduori, 2002
Language and politics in Kenya: restricted and elaborated codes (PDF). Journal of language and linguistics, v. 1, p. 434-442.
www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/1_4/oduori1_4.htm

Nathan O. Ogechi, 2003
On language rights in Kenya (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 12, p. 277-295.
www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol12num3/ogechi.pdf

Omondi Oketch, 2006
Language use and mode of communication in community development projects in Nyanza province, Kenya (PDF). PhD thesis. University of the Western Cape.
etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&action=viewtitle&id=gen8Srv25Nme4_2137_1182812003

Lisa Wolff-Foster, 2002
Enande i spillrorna av Babels Torn: språkplanering i Kenya och Tanzania = Unity in the remains of the Tower of Babel: language planning in Kenya and Tanzania (PDF). Undergraduate paper. Dept of Linguistics and Philology, Uppsala University.
www.lingfil.uu.se/ling/semfiler/WolffC.pdf

Lesotho back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Lesotho. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/LT

Languages of Lesotho, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=LS

Google Lesotho.
www.google.co.ls

Nancy Chongo Kula, 2004
Lesotho: language situation (PDF). To appear in: Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2nd edition.
www.nancykula.net/Kula2004c.PDF

Liberia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Liberia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/LI

Languages of Liberia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=LR

A. Babs Fafunwa, 1980
Teaching of Liberian languages in schools: Republic of Liberia (PDF). UNESCO technical report, ref. FMR/ED/SCM/80/113, PP/1979-80/1/5.4/03.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Libya back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Libya. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/LY

Languages of Libya, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=LY

Google Libya.
www.google.com.ly

Madagascar back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Madagascar. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MA

Languages of Madagascar, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MG

Malawi back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Malawi. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MI

Languages of Malawi, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MW

Google Malawi.
www.google.mw

Gregory H. Kamwendo, 2000
Interfacing language research with policy: the case of language in education in Malawi (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 9, p. 1-10.
www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol9num2/kamwendo.pdf

Gregory H. Kamwendo, 2004
Language policy in health services: a sociolinguistic study of a Malawian referral hospital (PDF). PhD thesis. University of Helsinki.
ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/hum/aasia/vk/kamwendo

Martin T. Walsh, Imani N. Swilla, 2000
Linguistics in the Corridor: a review of research on the Bantu languages of South-West Tanzania, North-East Zambia and North Malawi (PDF). Expanded version of a paper prepared for the International Colloquium on Kiswahili in 2000, Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
www.african.gu.se/downloads/walshswilla2002.pdf

Mali back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Mali. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/ML

Languages of Mali, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ML

M.L. Haïdara, 2000
Introduction des langues nationales dans l'enseignement: attitude des maîtres de Bamako (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 9 (3), special issue, p. 49-65.
www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol9num3/haidara.pdf

Mauritania back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Mauritania. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MR

Languages of Mauritania, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MR

Catherine Taine-Cheikh, 1994
Les langues comme enjeux identitaires (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 55, p. 57-65.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/055057.pdf

Mauritius back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Mauritius. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MP

Languages of Mauritius, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MU

Google Mauritius.
www.google.mu

Mayotte (Fr.) back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Mayotte. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MF

Languages of Mayotte, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=YT

Morocco back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Morocco. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MO

Languages of Morocco, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MA

Google Morocco.
www.google.co.ma

Simon Lèvy, 1996
Repères pour une histoire linguistique du Maroc (PDF). Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí, v. 1, p. 127-137.
www.ieiop.com/publicaciones/detalle.php?idnoticia=22

Manuela Marín
Julio Tienda (1898-1980) y la enseñanza del español en Marruecos durante el protectorado. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2003.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_03

Dawn Marley, 2004
Official and unofficial attitudes towards 'own' and 'other' languages in Morocco. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 15, section 6.1.
www.inst.at/trans/15Nr/06_1/marley15.htm

Michel Quitout, 2001
L'arabe, le français, l'amazighe au Maroc: un patrimoine linguistique national (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 22, p. 60-65.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

Ouafaa Zouali, 2004
Les usages langagiers, les attitudes langagières et l'expression identitaire de Marocains vivant en milieu minoritaire ou en milieu majoritaire (PDF). Thèse de PhD. Université Laval.
www.theses.ulaval.ca/2004/22238/22238.pdf

Mozambique back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Mozambique. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/MZ

Languages of Mozambique, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MZ

Wilhelm H.I. Bleek, 1856
The languages of Mosambique: vocabularies of the dialects of Lourenzo Marques, Inhambane, Sofala, Tette, Sena, Quellimane, Mosambique, Cape Delgado, Anjoane, the Maravi, Mudasu etc. (PDF). Harrison & Sons.
books.google.com/books?id=1rQFAAAAQAAJ

César Cumbe, Afonso Muchanga, 2001
Contact des langues dans le contexte sociolinguistique mozambicain. From: Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 41.
etudesafricaines.revues.org/document111.html

Jørgen Dalsgaard
Tindzimi ta Mozambique - Language and language policy in Mozambique. Århus University.
www.tindzimi.dk

Karl Erland Gadelii, 2001
Languages in Mozambique (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 1, p. 6-12.
www.african.gu.se/aa/pdfs/aa01006.pdf

Nkonko M. Kamwangamalu
Book review: 'Language and development in southern Africa' edited by R. Trewby & S. Fitchat, 2001. H-Net book review, January 2003.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Jouni Filip Maho, 2003
Towards a bibliography for Mozambican languages. Part 1: the smaller languages (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 3, p. 147-154.
www.african.gu.se/aa/pdfs/aa03147.pdf

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1995
Swahili und die Sprachen von Mosambik (PDF). From: Afrika Asien Brasilien Portugal (Zeitschrift zur portugiesischsprachigen Welt), v. 1/1995, p. 30-40.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8830

Thilo C. Schadeberg, 1997
Die Swahili-talen van Mozambique (PDF). From: Mededelingen van de Afdeling Letterkunde, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, nieuwe reeks, v. 60, p. 57-84.
hdl.handle.net/1887/8836

Namibia back to top »

The language policy for schools: 1992-1996 and beyond (PDF). Ministry of Education and Culture, Namibia.
www.nied.edu.na/publications/publications.htm

The language policy for schools in Namibia: discussion document, January 2003 (PDF). Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture, Namibia.
www.nied.edu.na/publications/publications.htm

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Namibia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/WA

Languages of Namibia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=NA

Google Namibia.
www.google.com.na

Chief Ankama
Impact of language on education policy - part 1 and part 2. New era (Windhoek), June 18-19, 2008.
www.newera.com.na/archives.php?id=21431

Mayari Cantoni, 2007
What role does the language of instruction play for a successful education? A case study of the impact of language choice in a Namibian school (PDF). Undergraduate essay. School of Humanities, Växjö University, Sweden.
urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-1703

Nkonko M. Kamwangamalu
Book review: 'Language and development in southern Africa' edited by R. Trewby & S. Fitchat, 2001. H-Net book review, January 2003.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Jouni Filip Maho
NAMLOB: Namibian languages online bibliography (PDF).
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/eball.html

Jesús Lasso Rey, María Dolores Jalón
El español en el panorama lingüístico de Namibia. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_05

Niger back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Niger. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/NG

Languages of Niger, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=NE

Christian Chanard, Andrei Popescu-Belis, 2001
Encodage informatique multilingue: application au contexts du Niger (PDF). Cahiers du Rifal, v. 22, p. 33-45.
www.rifal.org/3_information.html

Merwyn David Waldegrave Jeffreys, 1964
Niger: origins of the word. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 4, p. 443-451.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1964_num_4_15

Pascal Singy, Fabrice Rouiller, 2001
Les francophones face à leur langue: le cas des Nigériens. From: Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 41.
etudesafricaines.revues.org/document114.html

Nigeria back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Nigeria. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/NI

Languages of Nigeria, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=NG

Google Nigeria.
www.google.com.ng

Harrison Adéníyì, Rachael Béllò, 2006
Nigerian media, indigenous languages and sustainable development (PDF). From: Selected proceedings of the 36th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/36/index.html

Keith Allan, 1978
Nation, tribalism and national language: Nigeria's case. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 18, p. 397-415.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1978_num_18_71

Oladele Awobuluyi
Language education in Nigeria: theory, policy, and practice. The Fafunwa Foundation internet journal of education.
fafunwafoundation.tripod.com/fafunwafoundation/id8.html

Roger M. Blench
Atlas of Nigerian languages - 3rd edition (PDF). Mallam Dendo, Cambridge.
www.rogerblench.info/RBOP.htm

Roger M. Blench
The status of the languages of Central Nigeria (PDF). Mallam Dendo, Cambridge.
www.rogerblench.info/RBOP.htm

E. Nolue Emenanjo
Languages and the national policy on education: implications and prospects. The Fafunwa Foundation internet journal of education.
fafunwafoundation.tripod.com/fafunwafoundation/id9.html

Pai A. Obanya
Language education in Africa: lessons for and from Nigeria. The Fafunwa Foundation internet journal of education.
fafunwafoundation.tripod.com/fafunwafoundation/id7.html

Pai A. Obanya, 2004
Learning in, with, and from the first language (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 19. University of Cape Town.

Bertram A. Okolo, 1981
The history of Nigerian linguistics: a preliminary survey (PDF). Kansas working papers in linguistics, v. 6, p. 99-125.
hdl.handle.net/1808/558

Oladimeji Idowu Oladele, 2006
Multilinguality of farm broadcast and agricultural information access in Nigeria (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 15, p. 199-205.
www.njas.helsinki.fi

A.O. Olarenwaju
Using Nigerian languages as media of instruction to enhance scientific and technological development: an action delayed. The Fafunwa Foundation internet journal of education.
fafunwafoundation.tripod.com/fafunwafoundation/id10.html

Michael Omolewa, 1978
The teaching of French and German in Nigerian schools 1859-1959. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 18, p. 379-396.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1978_num_18_71

Oluwole S. Oyetade, 2003
Language planning in a multi-ethnic state: the majority/minority dichotomy in Nigeria (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 12, p. 105-117.
www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol12num1/oyetade.pdf

Andrew Simpson, B. Akíntúndé Oyètádé, 2007
Nigeria: ethno-linguistic competition in the giant of Africa (PDF). From: Language and national identity in Africa. Edited by Andrew Simpson. Oxford University Press.
eprints.soas.ac.uk/archive/00000182

C.O. Taiwo, 1972
The mother tongue as a means of promoting equal access to education in Nigeria (PDF) = La langue maternelle comme moyen de promouvoir l'accès égal à l'enseignement au Nigéria (PDF). UNESCO document, ref. ED/WS/307.
unesdoc.unesco.org

C.O. Taiwo, 1976
The mother tongue as a means of promoting equal access to education in Nigeria: problems and solutions (PDF) = La langue maternelle comme moyen de promouvoir l'accès égal à l'enseignement au Nigéria: problèmes et solutions (PDF). UNESCO document, ref. ED-76/WS/30.
unesdoc.unesco.org

C.O. Taiwo, 1976
Nigeria: language problems and solutions (PDF) = Nigéria: tentatives et problèmes en mati`re de langues (PDF) = Nigeria: problems de lenguaje y soluciones (PDF). Prospects / Perspectives / Perspectivas, v. 6, 3.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Réunion (Fr.) back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Réunion. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/RE

Languages of Réunion, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=RE

Rwanda back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Rwanda. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/RW

Languages of Rwanda, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=RW

Google Rwanda.
www.google.rw

Sahrawi Republic / West Sahara back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Western Sahara. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/WI

St. Helena (Br.) back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in St Helene & Ascension Island. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SH

Languages of St Helena, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SH

Google Saint Helena.
www.google.sh

São Tomé e Príncipe back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in São Tomé e Príncipe. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/TP

Languages of São Tomé e Príncipe, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ST

Google São Tomé e Príncipe.
www.google.st

Senegal back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Senegal. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SG

Languages of Senegal, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SN

Bisharat discussion board: Langues sénégalaises et les NTIC.
www.quicktopic.com/share?s=QSpo

Sénégal.
www.google.sn

Mamadou Cisse, 2005
Langues, état et société au Sénégal (PDF). Sudlangues: revue electronique internationale de sciences du langage, n. 5 (109).
www.sudlangues.sn/IMG/pdf/doc-109.pdf

Marie-Louise Moreau, 2001
Le marquage des identités ethniques dans le choix des prénoms en Casamance, Sénégal. From: Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 41.
etudesafricaines.revues.org/document108.html

El Hadji Amadou Ndoye
Le enseñanza del español en Senegal. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_05

Seychelles back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Seychelles. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SE

Languages of Seychelles, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SC

Google Seychelles.
www.google.sc

Sierra Leone back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Sierra Leone. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SL

Languages of Sierra Leone, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SL

David Dalby, 1980
National languages in education: the Republic of Sierra Leone (PDF). UNESCO technical report, ref. FMR/ED/SCM/81/133, PP/1979-80/1/5/4/03.
unesdoc.unesco.org

B. Akíntúndé Oyètádé, Victor Fashole-Luke, 2007
Sierra Leone: Krio and the quest for national integration (PDF). From: Language and national identity in Africa. Edited by Andrew Simpson. Oxford University Press.
eprints.soas.ac.uk/archive/00000181

Somalia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Somalia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SO

Languages of Somalia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SO

South Africa back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in South Africa. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SF

Languages of South Africa, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ZA

Google South Africa.
www.google.co.za

Language in education policy, 1997 (PDF). Ministry of Education, South Africa.
www.education.gov.za/Documents/policies/LanguageEducationPolicy1997.pdf

Pansalb's position on the promotion of multilingualism in South Africa: a draft discussion document, 1998. Pretoria.
www.info.gov.za/otherdocs/1998/pansalb.htm

Language policy and plan for South Africa: final draft, 2000 (PDF). Advisory Panel on Language Policy for the Ministry of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, South Africa.
curriculum.pgwc.gov.za/php/circular_docs/language_policy_and_plan_for_sa.htm

Language policy framework for South African higher education, 2001 (PDF). Council of Higher Education, Pretoria.
www.info.gov.za/otherdocs/2001/langframe.pdf

Language policy for higher education, 2002 (PDF). Ministry of Education, South Africa.
www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=70250

Simon Bekker, Anne Leildé, 2003
Is multiculturalism a workable policy in South Africa? (PDF). International journal on multicultural societies, v. 5, p. 119-134.
www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol5/issue2/art2

Daryl Braam, 2004
Community perception of change in a school's language policy (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 21. University of Cape Town.

Peter Broeder, Guus Extra, Jeanne Maartens, 2002
Multilingualism in South Africa: with a focus on KwaZulu-Natal and metropolitan Durban (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 7. University of Cape Town.
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Karen Calteaux, 1996
Standard and non-standard African language varieties in the urban areas of South Africa (PDF). Main report for the STANON Research Programme.
eric.ed.gov (ED402752)

Katy Cornwell, 2006
Language and labour in South Africa: a new approach for a new South Africa (PDF). Econometrics and business statistics working papers, 5/06. Monash University.
ideas.repec.org/p/msh/ebswps/2006-5.html

Kristin Henrard, 2001
Language rights and minorities in South Africa (PDF). International journal on multicultural societies, v. 3, p. 78-98.
www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol3/issue2/art3

Kathleen Heugh, 2000
The case against bilingual and multilingual education in South Africa (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 6. University of Cape Town.
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Sarah Howie, 2005
System-level evaluation: language and other background factors affecting mathematics achievement (PDF). Prospects: quarterly review of education, v. 35, 2, p. 175-186.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Nkonko M. Kamwangamalu
Book review: 'Language and development in southern Africa' edited by R. Trewby & S. Fitchat, 2001. H-Net book review, January 2003.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Gregory Kamwendo, 2006
No easy walk to linguistic freedom: a critique of language planning during South Africa's first decade of democracy (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 15, p. 53-70.
www.njas.helsinki.fi

A.M. Lembede, 1935
Language student and the Bantu student. From: Iso lomuzi, v. 4/10, p. 9-10.
http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/online%20books/freedominourlifetime/pages/toc.htm

Marielle Martinez, 1998
Multilinguisme, démocratie et droits linguistiques: l'undécalinguisme sud-africain - façade ou réalité? (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 71, p. 149-155.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/071149.pdf

Gordon Mitchell, 2003
Intercultural education for Democracy: the case of South Africa (PDF). From: Citizenship, democracy, and lifelong learning. UNESCO Inst. for Education.
unesdoc.unesco.org

Mkomati John Mongwe, 2006
The role of the South African national lexicography units in the planning and compilation of multifunctional bilingual dictionaries (PDF). MA thesis. University of Stellenbosch.
hdl.handle.net/10019/101

Davie Elias Mutasa, 2003
The language policy of South Africa: what do people say? (PDF). DLitt et Phil thesis. University of South Africa.
etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/ETD-desc/describe?urn=etd-04132005-085827

Ndivhuho Mutsila, 2003
The role of African languages in education and training (skills-development) in South Africa (PDF). MA thesis. University of South Africa.
etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/ETD-desc/describe?urn=etd-08022005-103920

Nomadhlangala Ndabezitha, 2005
Are the South African indigenous languages problematic in the South African multilingual multicultural hospitals? (PDF). MA thesis. University of Pretoria.
upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08022006-102324

Michellé October, 2002
Medium of instruction and its effect on matriculation examination results for 2000, in Western Cape secondary schools: a study of examination results in relation to home language and language medium (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 11. University of Cape Town.
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Jako Olivier
South African languages web.
salanguages.com

Desmond Painter
Book review: 'Language and identities in a postcolony: southern African perspectives' edited by Rosalie Finlayson & Sarah Slabbert, 2005. H-Net book review, December 2006.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Peter Plüddemann, Daryl Braam, Peter Broeder, Guus Extra, Michellé October, 2004
Language policy implementation and language vitality in Western Cape primary schools (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 15. University of Cape Town.
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Peter Plüddemann, Daryl Braam, Michellé October, Zola Wababa, 2004
Dual-medium and parallel-medium schooling in the Western Cape: from default to design (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 17. University of Cape Town.
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Peter Plüddemann, P.X. Mati, B. Mahlalela-Thusi, 2000
Problems and possibilities in multilingual classrooms in the Western Cape (PDF). PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, n. 2. University of Cape Town (UCT).
web.uct.ac.za/depts/praesa/OP.htm

Ana Rowe, Cathy Maree
El lugar del español en un país multilingüe: Sudáfrica. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Annuario 2005.
www.cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_05

Candace Sutton, 2006
A case study of two teachers' understanding of and attitudes towards bilingualism and multiculturalism in a South African primary school (PDF). MA thesis. Rhodes University.
eprints.ru.ac.za/497

Kathleen Thorpe, 2002
Multilingualism and minority languages in South Africa: a discussion paper. Trans: Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, n. 13.
www.inst.at/trans/13Nr/thorpe13.htm

Sudan back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Sudan. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/SU

Languages of Sudan, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SD

Society for the Promotion of Sudanese Studies, at the University of Wien.
www.univie.ac.at/sudanforschung

Profiles of south Sudanese communities at the Gurtong Trust.
www.gurtong.org/people.asp

Herman Bell, 1998
The Nuba Mountains: who spoke what in 1976?. Sudanic Africa: text and sources archive (online), n. 1. Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Bergen.
www.smi.uib.no/sa/tan/Nuba.html

Catherine Miller, 1986
Langues et intégration nationale au Soudan (PDF). Politique africaine, n. 23, p. 29-41.
www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/023029.pdf

Abdel Rahim Hamid Mugaddam
Language attitudes and language shift among ethnic emigrants in Khartoum. Afrikanistik Online. Digital Peer Publishing.
www.dipp.nrw.de/afrika/archiv/181

Swaziland back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Swaziland. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/WZ

Languages of Swaziland, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SZ

Tanzania back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Tanzania. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/TZ

Languages of Tanzania, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TZ

The Languages of Tanzania Project. University of Dar es Salaam.
www.lot.udsm.ac.tz

Karsten Legère, 2002
The "Languages of Tanzania" project: background, resources and perspectives (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 2, p. 163-186.
www.african.gu.se/aa/pdfs/aa02163.pdf

Safari Mafu, 2004
From the oral tradition to the information era: the case of Tanzania (PDF English) / De la tradition orale à l'ère de l'information: le cas de la Tanzanie (PDF français). International journal on multicultural societies, v. 6, p. 99-124, 125-145.
www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol6/issue1/art4

Jouni Maho, Bonny Sands
Languages of Tanzania: a web links collection.
www.african.gu.se/tanzania/weblinks.html

George A. Mhina, 1976
Language planning in Tanzania: focus on KiSwahili (PDF). UNESCO report, ref. ED-76/WS/29.
unesdoc.unesco.org

A.Y. Mreta, H.R.T. Muzale, J.M. Rugemalira, 2002
Languages of Tanzania Project: workshop II report (PDF). University of Dar es Salaam.
www.lot.udsm.ac.tz

Derek Nurse, Gérard Philippson, 1975
The Tanzanian Language Survey. Hosted at the CBOLD site.
www.cbold.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr

J.M. Rugemalira, H.R.T. Muzale, 2001
Languages of Tanzania Project: workshop I final report (PDF). University of Dar es Salaam.
www.lot.udsm.ac.tz

Oliver Stegen, 2005
Developing Bantu language descriptions in Swahili: strengthening both Tanzanian vernaculars and Swahili in education (PDF). Paper presented at the SACHES conferences, held at the University of Dar es Salaam, September 2005.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~oliver/59SACHES.PDF

Martin T. Walsh, Imani N. Swilla, 2000
Linguistics in the Corridor: a review of research on the Bantu languages of South-West Tanzania, North-East Zambia and North Malawi (PDF). Expanded version of a paper prepared for the International Colloquium on Kiswahili in 2000, Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
www.african.gu.se/downloads/walshswilla2002.pdf

Lisa Wolff Foster, 2002
Enande i spillrorna av Babels Torn: språkplanering i Kenya och Tanzania = Unity in the remains of the Tower of Babel: language planning in Kenya and Tanzania (PDF). Undergraduate paper. Dept of Linguistics and Philology, Uppsala University.
www.lingfil.uu.se/ling/semfiler/WolffC.pdf

Togo back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Togo. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/TO

Languages of Togo, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TG

Bisharat discussion board: Langues togolaises et les NTIC.
www.quicktopic.com/share?s=QSpo

Marie-France Lange, 1991
Le choix des langues enseignées à l'école au Togo: quels enjeux politiques? (PDF). Cahiers des sciences humaines, v. 27, p. 477-495.
www.bondy.ird.fr/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/sci_hum/35824.pdf

Benjamin Nicholas Lawrance, 2000
Most obedient servants: the politics of language in German colonial Togo. From: Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 40.
etudesafricaines.revues.org/document27.html

Benjamin Nicholas Lawrance, 2001
Language between powers, power between languages: further discussion of education and policy in Togoland under the French mandate, 1919-1945. From: Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 41.
etudesafricaines.revues.org/document107.html

Arthur Othily, 1966
Langues et populations du Togo: contribution bibliographique (PDF). Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).
horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_7/carton05/18725.pdf

Tunisia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Tunisia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/TS

Languages of Tunisia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TN

Uganda back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Uganda. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/UG

Languages of Uganda, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=UG

The Uganda Society at University of Pennsylvania.
www.africa.upenn.edu/ugandasoc/UgandaSociety.htm

Google Uganda.
www.google.co.ug

Douglas Mpuga, 2003
The official language issue: a look at the Uganda experience (PDF). Paper presented at the African Language Research Project Summer Conference, Ocean City MD, July 2003.
www.umes.edu/english/newalp/pdf/douglasmpuga.pdf

Mwenda Mukuthuria, 2006
Kiswahili and its expanding roles of development in East African cooperation: a case of Uganda (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 15, p. 154-165.
www.njas.helsinki.fi

Wikipedia
Languages of Uganda.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Uganda

Zambia back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Zambia. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/ZA

Languages of Zambia, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ZM

Google Zambia.
www.google.co.zm

Lee S. Bickmore
Languages of Zambia. Dept of Anthropology, State University of New York at Albany
www.albany.edu/~lb527/LOZ.html

Nancy Chongo Kula, 2004
Zambia: language situation (PDF). To appear in: Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2nd edition.
www.nancykula.net/Kula%202004b.pdf

Shay Linehan, 2004
Language of instruction and the quality of basic education in Zambia: a background paper for the "Education for all global monitoring report 2005: the quality imperative" (PDF). UNESCO document, ref. 2005/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/29.
unesdoc.unesco.org

P.C. Manchisi, 2004
The status of the indigenous languages in institutions of learning in Zambia: past, present and future. The African symposium: an on-line African educational research journal, v. 4 (1).
www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/aern/manpisi.html

Martin T. Walsh, Imani N. Swilla, 2000
Linguistics in the Corridor: a review of research on the Bantu languages of South-West Tanzania, North-East Zambia and North Malawi (PDF). Expanded version of a paper prepared for the International Colloquium on Kiswahili in 2000, Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
www.african.gu.se/downloads/walshswilla2002.pdf

Zimbabwe back to top »

Directory of cities, towns, and regions in Zimbabwe. Falling Rains Genomics Inc.
www.fallingrain.com/world/ZI

Languages of Zimbabwe, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ZW

Google Zimbabwe.
www.google.co.zw

Albert Natsa, Kedmon N. Hungwe, 2006
Language teachers' conceptions of literacy in Zimbabwean secondary schools (PDF). Journal of language and learning, v. 4, p. 74-85.
www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/jllearn/4_1/natsa.htm

Desmond Painter
Book review: 'Language and identities in a postcolony: southern African perspectives' edited by Rosalie Finlayson & Sarah Slabbert, 2005. H-Net book review, December 2006.
www.h-net.org/reviews

M. Peresuh, Jesta Masuku, 2002
The role of the primary language in the bilingual bicultural education in Zimbabwe (PDF). Zambezia, v. 29.1, p. 27-37.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/index.cfm

Juliet Thlondhlana, 2002
Using indigenous languages for teaching and learning in Zimbabwe (PDF). From: Indigenous languages across the community. Edited by B. Burnaby and J. Reyhner. College of Education, Northern Arizona University.
jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILAC


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